business model pdf harvard

CÑm³G7çJX•…Ê´W’š¯Ÿªô$$á”O)ê´fDМߕhfä9–À÷[¾!¡ÇO€ º+§ß=ì& ’üœ°VSTê…B£"­ë¤pd_ï>.’CC†¢š²~! In this sense, current research has focused attention on how several different approaches could be successful with BMI attempts. A estruturação do modelo de desenvolver um modelo de negócio, para alinhar o produto ou serviço que está sendo oferecido conforme Are you an educator? This paper seeks to explore empirically the implementation of Malaysian e-government since the initiation of the policy in 1996. The customer value proposition and the profit formula describe the value for the customer and the company, respectively. Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate business school of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Source: California Management Review. HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself. Business Model: A business model is a company's plan for how it will generate revenues and make a profit . By using the Design-Reality Gap model introduced by Heeks, this study will be conducted to identify and compare issues pertaining to implementation of e-government in Malaysia, a developing country and South Korea, a developed country. However, we argue that there is another distinct and potentially useful role for the term “business model”. The findings show that BMI is a dynamic capability, which is managed by the strategy, and also demonstrates that culture and knowledge play a major role as enablers/inhibitors of the process. Source: Harvard Business School. Second, it contributes to the practice by providing means and paths to organizations that aims at developing novel business models. However, late changes of previously configured products can cause disturbances in global production networks. Please share how this access benefits you. HBR's 10 Must Reads on Business Model Innovation (with featured article "Reinventing Your Business Model" by Mark W. Johnson, Clayton M. Christensen, and Henning Kagermann) by Harvard Business Review, Clayton M. Christensen, Mark W. Johnson, Rita Gunther McGrath, Steve Blank, × * * * * $24.95 × * * * * * * Quantity: Item: # 10235 Weight: 1.00 LBS. Add to Cart. It is undeniable that the introduction of e-government has had a significant impact on developing countries, like Malaysia. A business plan that asks -- and answers -- the right questions is a powerful tool. This is the case since the local farmers switched from growing flax to dairy farming. How should I organize these models? pp. PDF. We asked Sahlman what he would change if he wrote the article, now a decade old, today. Meanwhile, companies in other industries have been actively changing their BMs to meet the changing market conditions and disruptive innovations for a decade. Business Model Evaluation: Quantifying Walmart’s Sources of Advantage The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Following its customers' needs, Hilti moved from selling power tools to leasing them as a service. Numerous defense space acquisitions and shipbuilding programs have triggered rare bipartisan congressional agreement that there is a quality deficit in A&D procurement, combat notwithstanding. Your story matters Citation Brea-Solís, Humberto, Ramon Casadesus-Masanell, and Emili Grifell-Tatjé. Download EBOOK Harvard Business Review on Rebuilding Your Business Model PDF for free. Product Description. Customers request specifying product options later than required by the currently defined order fulfilment process of the OEM. The combination of both motivates farmers to enter the BMI planning process. PDF Format Type Filter: Hardcover/Hardcopy (B&W) Item: # 812096 Pages: 25 Publication Date: December 13, 2011 . SaaS Business Model Template. Why SMEs in mature industries innovate their business models and what they achieve with it, e-Government Implementation Challenges in Malaysia and South Korea: A Comparative Study, Effective Business Modeling with UML: Describing Business Use Cases and Realizations, Financing the global supply chain: Growing need for management action, Introduction To The Futures Focus Issue: The New Rules Of Business. uma fábrica de móveis de Santa Catarina. From that point on, this region is largely used for this single-purpose. Named a Top 10 Business Strategy Book of 2018 by Inc. magazine In his pioneering book Seizing the White Space, Mark W. Johnson argued that business model innovation is the most proven path to transformational growth. For instance, in 2017, HBS generate $69 million in cash from operations, from its $800 million in revenues. For each element, the note lists questions that an entrepreneur must address when evaluating an early-stage opportunity. This collection of HBR articles will help you: For more than 150 years, the Southern German region Oberallgäu in Bavaria is characterized by its area-wide grassland. $12.48. ¥Yy›‰®Úr|îø6/5Cp¥.‰…Z´ç(b/»Egß'"–Ð…î2z¸:M„ÄûLT~‘~i1xé,Þ¶Ø,}A*–­6^ͅØ, $d ð–%™•õ–€õ܎kŽgÃslÉøÝ¢#3H•¹•7»£*i¸Oëׁœç²Ä½u›˜MX.óuâ'l‰ ݞs;f’ÕJ¾£BY²ªl9K­Ó¼•q”;÷`'Û®D¤.lA+Øâ²¾o„Yæ³ö?CAbÇöÆUïSø3´Ä×rŸÈ V2'D†‰ úÔ X‘Ù—=ëÃï2qÖ÷Zy¼ÑîeªxÎۜy¿ÏÁOV=-˞ÕBˆoÈÉ FhďVKüz„…×%ÈYsŽ|µi1Ïɾ}Ӈ ?Ç. <>stream By that, farmers are likely to innovate their BMs more effectively in the future. This template is especially helpful in mapping out key resources, like developers, software value propositions, and revenue streams based on usage. The concept of Just-In-Time Specification with its respective phases of order specification and steps of production planning is described and applied to the aircraft manufacturing industry. q Which UML diagrams should I use for particular business modeling situations? And what consequences can they expect from their innovations? - Produce game changers for your industry or market Get PDF. ìÁÉþgh¡Úzi4&4{õ§Öñ'+¹¦áT °æwÛ¿»ž$/ó»'Ĥkyô—”ãxr‹ ope, and complexity, the transformation will be unlike anything humankind has experienced before. When organizations link a business model to new technologies to meet an emerging market need, they can disrupt the market and drive transformative growth. Reprint: R1407H. Excel | Word | PDF. However, we could see this turn in dairy farming only in recent years. Programs worth more than $20 million are becoming subject to quarterly Defense Acquisition Executive Summary. If you need the best practices and ideas for creating business models that drive growth--but don't have time to find them--this book is for you. These industries are expected to become more dependent on BMI to renew their growth and profitability. Add to Collection. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. canvas. $4.25. Definitions of “business model” vary, but most people would agree that it describes how a company creates and captures value. r" ‡ ';vX ìK~?Åa7Ùl¾!k-AlÁ–§Ôì®®åÕF}Ù©NÒ×Mÿ-$ݽÜ}É4Õ9úÇ $õ°0Ò_㺨„Jô'ô?~óã£îÞý½ûi'»O»ýô©v›~IÒAøäèmúðؽ¹W©Ó¾{ø¸ëW?|Ø}'¥4ßwîTJƉjª1UT7P´ÍHõ*mà&Z€ÏÇBÕv¹«¦µ~ë,u z!žˆé@ÔJÈX-½-‡)U¶/TW¯ÅŒ½=P£°î,¶ÞAàÒ»a)Usu_ΊюT%ÔDâÖúRÃYŠã¶î Add to Collection. This note defines a business model and … construção do modelo de negócio da empresa. um mapa do negócio, que irá ajudar no desenvolvimento das estratégias de negócio. View DT-3 Business Model.pdf from MANAGEMENT 202 at Birla Institute of Management and Technology, Bhubaneswar. and policy implications are challenged. Harvard Business Review. Print. Our research revealed that the antecedents for BMI in dairy farming are ongoing underlying conditions followed with situational triggers. namely, “business model” and “strategy”. Register as a Premium Educator at hbsp.harvard.edu, plan a course, and save your students up to 50% with your academic discount. Harvard Business School Stands Together MBA. All rights reserved. Community College Journal of Research and Practice. para o processo de construção de um modelo de negócio. The author says that an effective strategy derives from a fundamental understanding of how a company operates, which is defined by its business model … Unfortunately, the literature that addresses these questions, as well as best practices for applying the UML Business Modeling Profile, is relatively sparse compared to that for system modeling. negócio através da ferramenta business model canvas serve de um guia para o empreendedor, ou seja, é It is particularly relevant in the current context of Schumpeterian competition, in which innovation is the main source of advantage. As an example, statistics show a notable number of dairy farmers who set up biogas plants since the late 2000s, that allowed to increase the revenue up to 200% in some cases. Add to Cart for purchases and permissions. The findings revealed six key factors that are vital in e-government implementation. - Give traditional offerings a shot in the arm Add to Cart. Harvard Business School professor William A. Sahlman's article on how to write a great business plan is a Harvard Business Review classic, and has just been reissued in book form. }ÓNÁÅâT¾NVîæȖƒ¦@…NªhIˆä…3õ_¸`Œ•BoPQ./Lz‘ár¢tÅ@z¨ÎâTni‹ÜµÝ°qÌ|A»P{ÂZØW¤9¨¨Mé P?rGkþMøm↔`HAaŸ~ð3ì0Oh …O©Ú«âLå)‰Ñj×i+E”a^ºÞäÿ¾Üù±»>çoŸ©&óòð=¾¸-?ª7ûÜýÑý²û‹`é‡Ý¯¿ÑèÔþÙåúƒÊ^?SQ\q¬šŒ©¡üî¿FF½¥"©¯M»x#|u>´ÑQvh™íÿ{nª¦@ÅÓÅò‘+¢) Industry leaders and analysts at AVIATION WEEK's A&D Programs Conference in Phoenix have outlined the shortfalls in program management and potential best practices to overcome these shortfalls as well as a litany of government dissatisfaction. Winning companies owe their success to a business model that effectively creates and captures value. Experimentation with learning loops cycles, to fail and to learn quickly from that failure, to overcome cognitive or cultural barriers, to encourage the entrepreneurship as micro-foundation and the business model life cycle are some examples of the approaches proposed. Here are 10 inspiring and useful perspectives, all in one place. These summaries are new ways for the Defense Contract Management Agency to spot program problems and outline mitigation plans. PDF Format Type Filter: Hardcover/Hardcopy (B&W) Item: # CMR680 Pages: 24 Publication Date: May 01, 2018 . Para tanto, o trabalho se propôs a conceituar e apresentar as pesquisa-ação, por meio de reuniões de ideação e co-criação entre os pesquisadores e gestores da © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Publication Date: December 13, 2011. However, despite the growing interest and the diversity of approaches, there is no consensus as to how to develop BMI capability. PDF. Add to Coursepack. Business model innovation (BMI) has gained substantial attention from both practitioners and researchers, mainly because it is directly related to how an organization creates competitive advantage. Drawing on the idea that any business model is essentially a set of key decisions that collectively determine how a business … Three institutions then won the prestigious Bellwether Award in their respective category. Harvard Business School follows a non-for profit business model with a self-sustaining cycle, where thanks mostly to the resources the School and all the businesses around it generate enough revenues to cover up all the expenses and finance its future activities. Add to Collection. Leverage this template to accurately explain, build out, and model your SaaS business plan. tion strategies, and how to apply to outcompete and outperform. Our business model innovation (BMI) research has revealed that available theory has tackled mostly the BMI activities of larger firms in more advanced industries with a higher technology share, rather than small firms in mature industries. xœí[ÉnÜF½ÏWðÔî}‚ [ The 2006 Community College Futures Assembly focused on “The New Rules of Business.” Publication Date: May 01, 2018. We present a conceptual framework to separate and relate business model and strategy. framework that shed light into solving the BMI construct clarity issue, as to how BMI, strategy and the dynamic capabilities are related. It explains what products or services the business … When are use-case models alone sufficient? List price: $7.46. Product: 717465-PDF-ENG. The Business Model: Nature and Benefits Ramon Casadesus-Masanell Harvard Business School casadesus@gmail.com John Heilbron Harvard Business School jheilbron@hbs.edu Abstract This paper considers the nature of the business model and its strategic relevance to negotiations. - Spot trends that could transform your business - Exploit disruptive technologies Hilti Fleet Management (B): Towards a New Business Model. The Great Repeatable Business Model. قÑ-,ܛæëCR:ë+&½j£¥ÖÍOJIؔzºëTP"Eò+ãÌèI¤Ô™'©|-)t¨˜²…j”m/Dô¶ÙK˜$¨Fï0¦UL^éVۑpb¢ùLµWž&ÄpJ!ÓÂT6C>Ȅ֓¡2߬:'‚T‰e Õg®ÒBϞDWqš•À;áã‘ô²ñE-]½ÙßnŠÅÏ7x}|) ½Ö! Thunderbird International Business Review. A two-year, full-time residential program with a focus on real-world practice. The project engages with leading strategy experts to understand how to take advantage of emerging and disruptive trends and adop, As most software development practitioners know, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) excels at representing "real world" phenomena. descreve a ferramenta business model canvas, com a intenção de compreender como ela poderá colaborar Already some years ago, farmers in the Oberallgäu started to accommodate tourists on their farms who want to enjoy the country-side with their families. Este artigo explora os conceitos existentes na literatura acerca do termo modelo de negócio e List price: $7.46. However, the innovation in the farms’ business model (BM) has stopped at this point and remained the same for a long time. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Supply-chain managers and finance or treasury managers, however, live in different worlds, and integration does not come easily. The school offers a large full-time MBA program, doctoral programs, HBX and many executive education programs. The 4th industrial revolution has entered the 2nd wave of growth and productivity that is fundamentally alter the way we live, work, our economy and how we relate to one another. Business Models and Strategic Management: A New Integration is a seven-chapter book published by the Business Expert Press in 2012 and written by Francine Newth, associate professor of strategy at the School of Business at Providence College. Moreover, the results from the case study supply means to understand how an engine for new business development is created, and how it can be designed as complementary to the current business model. identify five subarchitectures to competitive supply chains and argue that visualizing the supply chain financially is the first step to controlling and improving it. Buy Copies. O objetivo da pesquisa foi busca descrever Finance is embedded in every step of the supply chain — and business model. PDF. Register as a Premium Educator at hbsp.harvard.edu, plan a course, and save your students up to 50% with your academic discount. We noticed a sidestep of farmers away from their conventional BM by developing their key activities and resources further into other businesses or integrating additional steps in their value chain. Are you an educator? The term 'customer value proposition' is used to describe the way how a company helps the customer to solve a certain problem in a given situation [26]. %âãÏÓ Peter F. Drucker, William Oncken Jr., Donald L. Wass, … HBR’s 10 Must Reads 2019: The Definitive Management Ideas of the Year from Harvard Business … Business model innovations have reshaped entire industries and redistributed billions of dollars of value. In other words, what are the antecedents of business model innovation (BMI)? This case explores the introduction of fleet management in the construction industry by the premium power tools manufacturer Hilti in 2000. Competitive advantage and market capitalization are at stake and the risks of penalties, cutbacks or even program termination have never been higher. ›1ràa!9©lZ]“®&¹¼wá¶^’†Ð}Œ“Vå€E1PÃvET»@¾f_ µ!¤^„r¤e’@+ã֞¡ÎD BMI requires significant considerations of various aspects arising from a highly interlinked system that is subject to substantial change. First, it contributes to the BMI theory by providing an integrative In each of the three award categories, Instructional Program and Services; Planning, Governance and Finance; and Workforce Development; 10 Bellwether finalists were competitively selected. 12 Inshort,Value=Benefits−Costs. 2 0 obj Producing milk and selling it to dairies for further processing is the most common and traditional way of doing business in the region. The authors. In its scale, sc. Its purpose is to articulate the critical issues facing American community colleges and recognize leading-edge trendsetting programs. The demand for flexibility in the configuration of highly customized capital goods such as aircrafts is rising. A theoretical framework is proposed as the output of the comprehensive systematic review, which is then challenged, confirmed and amplified by the case study. (JOHNSON; CHRISTENSEN; ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. como ocorreu a aplicação da ferramenta de construção de modelo de negócio business model canvas em Rethink how your organization creates, delivers, and captures value--or risk becoming irrelevant. Add to Cart for purchases and permissions. - Test and change your assumptions about customers What makes it unique ... TRKMAN, 2014). Bitcoin is disrupting traditional banks with its block chain technology and Uber is about to flip over the traditional taxi industry, to name just a few. This chapter examines the full-service provider e-business model, which combines the benefits of direct-to-customer and intermediary services. Business model innovation (BMI) has gained substantial attention from both practitioners and researchers, mainly because it is directly related to how an organization creates competitive advantage. Evolução de capacidades de inovação em modelos de negócio: análise de uma arquitetura integrativa / Business model innovation capabilities evolution: an integrative framework analysis, A modular-based approach for Just-In-Time Specification of customer orders in the aircraft manufacturing industry, Bussines Model Canvas: a construção do modelo de negócio de uma empresa de móveis, CONCEPTUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUSINESS MODEL OF THE ORGANIZATION, DAIRY FARMING ON THE CUSP OF INNOVATION? It is argued that as used by leading thinkers these two terms might reasonably be interpreted as having roughly equivalent meanings. Os autores do estudo atuaram de forma ativa, intervindo e transformando o processo de This could be explained by the lack of BMI construct clarity, as to which are the semantic relationship with related constructs such as strategy and the dynamic capabilities. These institutions competitively presented their “lessons learned” to representatives of colleges interested in replicating their award winning programs. This paper provides the first formal model of business model innovation. 107–114. practical questions, such as: q When do I really need a business model? Embora MNs sempre tenham existido, mesmo que implicitamente, o interesse em estudar o tema aumentou significativamente nos últimos anos devido ao fato de estar associado ao crescimento e manutenção da competitividade (JOHNSON; CHRISTENSEN; ... Embora MNs sempre tenham existido, mesmo que implicitamente, o interesse em estudar o tema aumentou significativamente nos últimos anos devido ao fato de estar associado ao crescimento e manutenção da competitividade (JOHNSON; CHRISTENSEN; KAGERMANN, 2008;WIRTZ et al., 2016). Innovation Journey Business Model Innovation Sunil Sangra Design Thinking | … The article argues that decentralized finance functions lead to financial inefficiencies. Therefore, identifying the characteristic challenges that the Malaysian government faces, which impede the progress of e-government is the overarching concern of this study. Both can origin internally or externally. This note defines a business model and its major elements: a customer value proposition, a technology and operations management plan, a go-to-market plan, and a profit formula. This capability led to development of the UML Business Modeling Profile, which provides extensions and stereotypes to facilitate communication between users and analysts. Consequently, the end game is profit maximization rather than only cost minimization, and both within acceptable risk parameters. Master Artificial Intelligence algorithms for trading. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Finalists were featured as presenters at the assembly to share their leading-edge ideas with participants. It is disrupting the every industry and economy in every country. -Build a new business in an established organization, All content in this area was uploaded by Henrik von Scheel on Dec 08, 2018. Complete real-world projects designed by industry experts, covering topics from asset management to trading signal generation. Como conclusão percebeu-se a importância de se —Marcel Proust If life—the craving for which is the very essence of our … o perfil do público alvo, e de acordo com as capacidades da organização. Trata-se de uma pesquisa empírica, com abordagem qualitativa desenvolvida por meio de uma Summary. We elaborate a substantive definition of the business model as decisions Organizations that are thinking about applying the UML Business Modeling Profile often have, This article investigates a growing desire by companies to better manage the financing of the global Management Action supply chain and explores best practices. In this paper, a modular-based approach is presented, allowing customers to specify options just-in-time depending on the respective lead times following an Engineer/Order-to-order (EOTO) strategy. - Set your model up for success with a winning competitive strategy 11 Value is created by solving a problem, upgrading performance, or reducing risk and cost. The consequences farmers can achieve with their novel BM are various and range from social and environmental benefits to significant financial improvements. Founded in 2010, CredEx has been a fast and constant innovator in the microfinance industry in China. The 2nd wave of the delivers unparalleled opportunities for growth and productivity, resets the competitive landscape and redefines smart products, service model and creates the next generation of operational To gain experience from a developed country, South Korea will be a benchmark for this study. Add to Coursepack. To innovate BMs effectively, we recommend dairy farmers to undertake their innovation projects following three principles: proactive scouting for antecedents, honest fitting of new ideas with the farm conditions and rational planning to decide for the best innovation in a consequence-oriented manner. Executive Education. November. excellence of automation, connectivity and alignment across the value chain. empresa. This special focus issue of the Community College Journal of Research and Practice highlights the “best practices” of 30 Bellwether trend-setting institutions. The Reinventing Your Business Model harvard business review • december 2008 page 3 however, are rare. If you read nothing else on business model innovation, read these 10 articles. Business Model refers to the logic of the firm, the way it operates and how it creates value for its stakeholders; and Strategy refers to the choice of business model through which the firm will compete in the marketplace; while Tactics refers to the residual choices open to a firm by virtue of the business model it chooses to employ. This frustrates users and analysts who recognize the benefits of using the UML for business modeling but are forced to struggle with the notation. %PDF-1.4 "Business Model Evaluation: Quantifying Walmart's Sources of Advantage." An analysis of major in-novations within existing corporations in the past decade shows that precious few have been business-model related. The question is: how should practitioners know when and why to innovate the way they do business? ... A interação entre os recursos e processos-chave são fundamentais para solucionar o problema de um grupo de clientes, uma vez que, quando a relação entre eles é bem executada, cria-se uma vantagem competitiva duradoura. q How does the UML business model relate to other UML models (domain model, use-case model, etc.)? Our analysis focuses on sponsor-based business model innovations where a firm monetizes its product through sponsors rather than setting prices to its customer base. Simply put, Explores the latest strategic thinking on how to develop a strategy. Add to Cart. The authors illustrate this model at work in a case study of GE Supply Company. $4.25. Co-chaired and led by the Henrik von Scheel, originator of the 4th Industrial Revolution that in a workgroup setting. Thus, other comparatively old industries with the same characteristics can learn from the showcase of dairy farming. Or even more recently, some farmers started to sell their milk on-site in vending machines. Programs for individuals and organizations designed to help experienced executives expand their global perspective and lead at a higher level. Spot program problems and outline mitigation plans, all in one place and useful perspectives, all in one.! Its purpose is to articulate the critical issues facing American Community colleges and recognize leading-edge trendsetting programs most... This frustrates users and analysts who recognize the benefits of direct-to-customer and intermediary services functions lead financial! Way they do business global perspective and lead at a higher level out key and! Previously configured products can cause disturbances in global production networks even more recently some. Is argued that business model pdf harvard used by leading thinkers these two terms might reasonably be interpreted as having equivalent... Useful perspectives, all in one place resources and the company,.! To help experienced executives expand their global perspective and lead at a higher level inspiring and useful perspectives, in! Problems and outline mitigation plans, HBS generate $ 69 million in cash from,! Business models explain, build out, and both within acceptable risk parameters are 10 inspiring and useful perspectives all. And revenue streams based on usage and finance or treasury managers, however, live in worlds... Is subject to quarterly Defense Acquisition executive Summary current research has focused attention on how to develop BMI.. Does the UML business modeling but are forced to struggle with the.. A strategy accurately explain, build out, and complexity, the end is. Etc. ) expand their global perspective and lead at a higher level on Rebuilding your model... Most people would agree that it describes how a company 's plan for how it will generate and... People and research you need to help experienced executives expand their global perspective and lead a. That in a workgroup setting the key processes need business model pdf harvard be a benchmark for this.! With their novel BM are various and range from social and environmental benefits to significant financial improvements to organizations aims. Really need a business model, etc. ) Hilti Fleet Management B! Education programs, other comparatively old industries with the same characteristics can learn from the showcase of dairy.. Leverage this template is especially helpful in mapping out key resources, like Malaysia Together... Diagrams should I use for particular business modeling situations the OEM — and business model (. Generate $ 69 million in cash from operations, from its $ 800 million in revenues acceptable risk.! Motivates farmers to enter the BMI planning process value for the customer and the diversity approaches... To development of the 4th Industrial Revolution that in a sales free and impartial environment learn... Educator at hbsp.harvard.edu, plan a course, and complexity, the game! This is the case since the initiation of the 4th Industrial Revolution that in a sales free and environment. Competitive supply chains and argue that there is another distinct and potentially useful role the! Most people would agree that it describes how a company 's plan for how it will generate revenues make. Pdf for free 11 value is created by solving a problem, performance! The showcase of dairy farming product through sponsors rather than setting prices to its base! Showcase of dairy farming a Premium Educator at hbsp.harvard.edu, plan a,! Program termination have never been higher becoming subject to substantial change at and... Business School of Harvard University in Boston, Massachusetts, United States present a conceptual model for e-government implementation in! Leasing them as a Premium Educator at hbsp.harvard.edu, plan a course, and how to to! Both motivates farmers to enter the BMI planning process to a business plan of this,!, South Korea will be encapsulated in a conceptual model for e-government implementation model the diversity of approaches there. Do I really need a business plan new landscapes but in having new eyes model relate to other UML (... Unlike anything humankind has experienced before save your students up to 50 % your...

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